《A Guide Of English Grammar》之四(时态和语态及虚构语气)【js5023.com金沙网站】

  时态和语态对于听力解题至关重要,听清了、理解了听力材料的时态,看清了题干和选项的语态能够迅速解题。以下,跨考教育[微博]英语教研室的老师们为大家整理了具体的答题思路。

第一节时态

时态

  一、步骤

1.时态的分类:一般时;完成时;进行时。

3.1 时态的种类

方式时间现在过去将来过去将来
一般live/liveslivedshall/will livewould/should be live
进行am/is/are livingwas/were livingshall/will be livingwould/should be living
完成have/has livedhad livedshall/will have livedwould/should have lived
完成进行have/has been livinghad been livingshall/will have been livingwould/should have been living

  (1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案;

1.1.一般时:

3.2 一般现在时

  (2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。

①一般现在时:

3.2.1 一般现在时表示经常性的动作或状态

一般现在时在表示经常性动作或状态时常与often,always,usually,sometimes,everyday,generally等状语连用

  • He lives in New York
  • We visit him every summer

  二、要点

He writes a letter every day.

3.2.2 一般现在时表示客观规律或普遍真理

  • Two plus two equals four
  • Knowledge is power

即使在主句的谓语动词为过去时态的情况下,宾语从句的谓语动词仍然用一般现在时来表示客观规律或普遍真理

  • The teacher told them since light travels faster than
    sound,lightning appears to go before thunder

  1.以下几类动词一般不能用于进行时,同样不用于完成进行时:

②一般过去时:

3.2.3 一般现在时表示主语的特征或状态

  • Air contains oxygen and nitrogen
  • Japan lies to the east of China

  (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

He wrote a letter yesterday.

3.2.4 一般现在时在时间和条件状语从句中表示将来的动作或状态

  • I'll let you know as soon as he comes
  • We will go fishing if it is fine tomorrow

  (2)表示意愿、情感的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love,
prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

③一般将来时:

3.3 一般过去时

  (3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel,
mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust,
suppose;

He will write a letter tomorrow.

3.3.1 一般过去时表示过去的动作或状态

  1. 一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用
    • The train arrived ten minutes ago
    • I was away yesterday afternoon

另外,一般过去时还可以和for或since引导的时间状语连用
* I lived here for five years
* Nothing happened since then

  1. 有时一般过去时的时间状语或是在上下文,或是暗含于句中
    • Did you sleep well
    • I saw him on my way to walk

  (4)表示所有、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

1.2.完成时:

3.3.2 一般过去时在时间和条件状语从句中表示过去将来的动作或状态

  • Tom promised to write to us when he reached London
  • He said he would let us know if he got any news

  (5)其他动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve,
matter, seem。

①现在完成时:

3.4 一般将来时

  • We shall be pleased to accept your invitation
  • My son will be five years old next month

  如:

He has written the letter.

3.5 现在进行时

  I’d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to
you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal。

②过去完成时:

3.5.1 现在进行时表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作

  • The telephone is ringing
  • We are preparing for the meeting to be held next month

  (1997年考研[微博]题,
belong表示归属,不用于进行式)

He had written the letter when I came.

3.5.2 现在进行时表示经常性的动作

现在进行时在表示经常性、重复性或习惯性的动作时必须与always,constantly,continually,repeatedly等频度副词连用

  • The child is continually losing keys
  • Why are you always complaining

  He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open
window last night。

③将来完成时:

3.6 过去进行时

  (1990年考研题,see表示结果,不用于进行式)

He will have written the letter before I come.

3.6.1 过去进行时表示过去某时正在进行的动作

  1. 过去进行时通常和时间状语连用
    • He was singing just now
    • What were you doing last night
  2. 过去进行时可用作其他动作发生的背景
    • I was reading while she was writing
    • Tome walked in when I was having my lunch

有时过去进行时用于主句,位于其后的when引导的从句中表示意外发生的情况

  • I was having my lunch when Tom walked in

  2. 不用will/shall表达将来时的形式:

1.3.进行时:

3.6.2 过去进行时表示过去将来的动作

过去进行时的这种用法多表示过去的打算,通常仅限于come,go,leave,depart,start等一些表示移动的动词

  • He said he was leaving the next day
  • We were departing two days later

  (1)be going to表示现在的打算和意图;

①一现在进行时:

3.7 将来进行时

  1. 将来进行时表示预计即将出现或势必出现的情况

    • The train will be arriving soon
    • How long will you be staying for?
  2. 将来进行时表示将来一段时间内正在进行的动作

    • We shall be traveling this time next year
    • They will be doing the experiment for seven to nine this evening

  (2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start,
take off等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作;

He is writing a letter now.

3.8 过去将来时

  1. 过去将来时表示过去某时之后将出现的情况,通常用于宾语从句中
    • I thought he would come
    • She never imagined that she would become a doctor

  (3)be to (do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事,如:

②过去进行时:

3.9 现在完成时

  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if
food shortage is to be avoided。

He was writing a letter when I came.

3.9.1 现在完成时表示从过去持续到现在的动作或状态

  1. 现在完成时的这种用法通常与由since或for引导的时间状语连用
    • I have waited here since three o'clock
    • I have waited here for three hours

  (4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

③将来进行时:

3.9.2 现在完成时表示过去发生的对现在有影响的动作

  1. 现在完成时的这种用法有时不带时间状语,有时可以和already,before,ever,just,lately,never,once,recently,yet等一些所指时间不具体的时间状语连用

    • I have lost my keys
    • Have you ever been to Australia
  2. 有时现在完成时和now,today,this morning,this week,this
    year等表示现在的时间状语连用

    • I haven't seen him today
    • They have produced five films this year

  Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to
pay compliments to his political leaders。

He will be writing a letter when I come.

3.10 过去完成时

  (5)be on the point /verge of
(doing)表示“马上就要”,一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;

1.4.完成进行时:

3.10.1 过去完成时表示过去某时之前结束的动作或状态

  • When we reached the station,the train had already left
  • He told me that he had finished his paper

had + just/barely/hardly/scarcely + done
...when...是表示“刚...就...”或“不等...就...”的固定句型

  • I had hardly opened the door when the phone rang
  • He had scarcely arrived when he had to leave again

  (6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return,
start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件,如:

①现在完成进行时:

3.10.2 过去完成时表示持续到过去某时之前的动作或状态

  • He had worked here for 20 years old by the end of last month
  • My sister said she had read three novels since she entered the
    university

  If you want your film to be properly processed, you’ll have to wait
and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow。

He has been writing for two hours.

3.10.3 过去完成时表示未实现的愿望

过去完成时表示未实现的愿望的用法仅限于expect,hope,intend,mean,plan,think,want等动词

  • I had intended to come,but I was too busy
  • I had expected to meet him at the meeting

  (画线部分一般不用will be)

②过去完成进行时:when I called,he had been writing a letter for two
hours.

3.11 将来完成时

  (7)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:

2.使用一般现在时的时机:主语+一般现在时动词。

3.11.1 将来完成时表示到将来某时已结束的动作或状态

  • When you come tomorrow, we shall have found the answer
  • He will have forgotten about it before long

  I don’t know where he will go tomorrow.
我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)

2.1.表知觉、状态、所有:

3.11.2 将来完成时表示持续到将来某时的动作或状态

  • By the time I graduate,I shall have studied English for six years
  • He will have been a teacher for a whole year by next Monday

  I’ll tell him when you will ring again.
我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

I smell something burning.

3.12 现在完成进行时

  比较:I’ll tell him when you ring
again。你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)

You look worried.

3.12.1 现在完成进行时表示从过去一直持续到现在的动作

  1. 现在完成进行时所表示的动作刚刚终止

    • I have been waiting here for you since three o'clock
  2. 现在完成时进行时所表示的动作可能继续下去

    • She has been wearing glasses since last year
    • We have been discussing for two hours

  (8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it)
后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:

This medicine tasts bitter to me.

3.12.2 现在完成时表示从过去到现在的重复性动作

  1. 现在完成进行时的这种用法所表示的并不是一直在进行的动作,而是断断续续地反复发生的动作
    • He has been appearing on TV
    • You have been coming to see me for many years
    • I've been wanting to write you for a long time

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they
didn’t know the answer to last time。

He has a book.

3.13 过去完成进行时

过去完成进行时主要持续到过去某时之前的动作

  1. 过去完成进行时所表示的动作到某时已经终止

    • The phone had been ringing for two minutes before it was
      answered
  2. 过去完成进行时所表示的动作到某时可能继续下去

    • By last Friday ,he had been working in our company for three
      years
    • He said he had been practicing on the piano since he was five

  (include 不能用will include或其他形式)

Your hands feel cold.

3.14 不能用于进行时态的动词

有些动词不能用于进行时态,它们是一些静态动词,这类动词包括表示“存在”和“拥有”的动词、表示感官的动词、表示思维活动的动词,表示情感的动词等,如:be,exist;have,own,possess;see,hear,taste,smell,feel;agree,belive,desire,dislike,doubt等。

  3.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语:

I see a man standing there.

  (1)by/between/up to/till +过去时间、since、by the time/when
+表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:

He is a student.

  We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door。

2.2.表习惯的动作,常以时间副词修饰:

  Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which
artificial beings were portrayed had been produced。

He goes to school every day.

  (表示1919年时已发生的情况)

He writes a letter every day.

  (2)by +将来时间、by the time/ when
+谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:

He always take a bus home.

  By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for
two weeks。

2.3.表真理,事实,格言:

  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come
back next year。

The sun rises in the east.

  (3)by now、since +过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last
few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在it is
+具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:

He ,who is lazy is doomed to failure.=he, who is lazy is doomed to fail.

  The changes that howe taken place place in air travel during the
last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the
most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century。

Honest is the best policy.

  It is four years since John left school。

2.4.表将来:begin/start/arrive/go/come等动词用一般现在时表将来。Does he
come tomorrow?

  (4)在It is the
+序数词/形容词最高级+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:

3.使用一般过去时的时机:主语+一般过去时动词

  It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing
situation。

3.1.表过去的动作、习惯、状态:

  (5)在no sooner…than…,
hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

I saw him yesterday.

  (6)其他与完成时连用的时间状语:all this while, all this year, for
some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。

He was born in 1978.

  4.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如:

3.2.表过去的经验(也可用现在完成时):

  The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but
nothing has happened。

Did you ever see her before?=Have you ever see her before?

  The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his
followers had been demonstrating for。

3.3.句中若有before,after,until等连词引导的从句,由于时间先后很清楚,可用一般过去时代替过去完成时。

  文章来源:跨考教育

4.用一般将来时的时机:主语+will+原形动词表将来要发生的动作或状态。

It will rain tomorrow.

注意:①由连词when,unless,if,once等所引导的状语从句表示某条件要用一般现在时,主句要用一般将来时。

When I have money,I will buy a car.

②be going to=will

He is going to come.=he will come.

5.使用现在完成时的时机:

主语+have+p.p.(have译作:曾经)

5.1.用以表示到现在为止完成的动作:

I have just finished my work.

5.2.用以表示到现在为止的经验,

I have met him several times.

5.3.用以表示到现在为止仍在继续的动作或状态:

I have lived here 10 years.

She has studied English since 2000.

注意:表“曾去过”的经历时,用“have been”而非“have gone”

He has gone toHong Kong.已经去了,现在人在香港;he has been to Hong
Kong.曾去过,现在又回来了。

6.过去完成时的时机:主语+had+p.p.(had译作已经,或曾经)用以表示截止过去某时所完成的动作或经历。

He had studied English for10 years before he left for the States.

He told me that he had seen the movies
once.注意过去完成时不能单独存在,必须有一般过去时从句或表过去的时间副词短语连用方可体现出不同时间发生的两种动作。

I lost the book which she had given me.

7.使用将来完成时的时机:

主语+will
have+p.p.译作“将已经”,表示到将来某时已经完成或仍在继续进行的动作或经历等。

He will have arrived in Chicago by this time tomorrow.

When you come ,everything will have been finished.

8.使用现在进行时的时机:主语+is/am/are+现在分词

①用以表示正在做的动作。

I am doing laundry.

②用以表示即将发生的动作,常与表将来的时间副词连用。

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